The ID3 gene is important for gene expression programs in the male reproductive system and is known to have a crucial role in proper embryo development.
TAS2Rs are bitter taste receptors that are highly expressed in the testis. It is thought these receptors may be important for chemotaxis during fertilization.
The CAMTA gene is important for embryonic heart development, which is crucial for proper embryogenesis.
The VAMP3 gene is important for human sperm acrosome reaction.
MIR223 is a microRNA that appears to be important for embryo implantation.
FOXF1 is a gene that is highly important for embryo development.
7. KIAA0146 or “SPIDR”
The SPIDR gene is involved in DNA stability and damage repair.
GATA2 is an important gene that regulates differentiation of blood stem cells and the knockout of GATA2 is fatal to embryos.
CatSper2 is an essential gene required for sperm penetration and chemotaxis..
PLAGL1 is a paternally expressed gene that helps regulate cell cycle, apoptosis, fetal growth and is strongly associated with low sperm concentration, motility and morphology.